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Guide To Buying Your First Home


Finding the right first home starts with a price range and a short list of desirable neighborhoods. But there are many other factors you'll need to consider before investing in what may be your biggest asset.

Before You Start:

•Grab your current household budget so you can consider your financial situation and your ability to make mortgage payments.
•Ask family and friends if they can recommend experts,
like a lawyer and an inspector, who can help with the home buying process.
•Think about your lifestyle and how it might affect your choice of home and neighborhood.
•Do a little research on current home prices in the neighborhoods you plan to target.
Buying Your First Home

Home ownership is the cornerstone of the American Dream. But before you start looking, there are a number of things you need to consider. First, you should determine what your needs are and whether owning your own home will meet those needs. Do you picture yourself mowing the lawn on Saturday, or leaving your urban condo for the beach? The best advice is to look at buying a home as a lifestyle investment, and only secondly as a financial investment.
Even if housing prices don't continue to increase at the torrid pace seen in recent years in many areas, buying a home can be a good financial investment. Making mortgage payments forces you to save, and after 15 to 30 years you will own a substantial asset that can be converted into cash to help fund retirement or a child's education. There are also tax benefits.

Like many other investments, however, real estate prices can fluctuate considerably. If you aren't ready to settle down in one spot for a few years, you probably should defer buying a home until you are. If you are ready to take the plunge, you'll need to determine how much you can spend and where you want to live.

How Much Mortgage Can You Afford?

Many mortgages today are being resold in the secondary markets. The Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae) is a government-sponsored organization that purchases mortgages from lenders and sells them to investors. Mortgages that conform to Fannie Mae's standards may carry lower interest rates or smaller down payments. To qualify, the mortgage borrower needs to meet two ratio requirements that are industry standards.

The housing expense ratio compares basic monthly housing costs to the buyer's gross (before taxes and other deductions) monthly income. Basic costs include monthly mortgage, insurance, and property taxes. Income includes any steady cash flow, including salary, self-employment income, pensions, child support, or alimony payments. For a conventional loan, your monthly housing cost should not exceed 28 percent of your monthly gross income.

The total obligations to income ratio is the percentage of all income required to service your total monthly payments. Monthly payments on student loans, installment loans, and credit card balances older than 10 months are added to basic housing costs and then divided by gross income. Your total monthly debt payments, including basic housing costs, should not exceed 36 percent.

Many home buyers choose to arrange financing before shopping for a home and most lenders will "pre-qualify" you for a certain amount. Prequalification helps you focus on homes you can afford. It also makes you a more attractive buyer and can help you negotiate a lower purchase price. Nothing is more disheartening for buyers or sellers than a deal that falls through due to a lack of financing.

In addition to qualifying for a mortgage, you will probably need a down payment. The 28 percent to 36 percent debt ratios assume a 10 percent down payment. In practice, down payment requirements vary from more than 20 percent to as low as 0 percent for some Veterans Administration (VA) loans. Down payments greater than 20 percent generally buy a better rate. Lowering the down payment increases leverage (the opportunity to make a profit using borrowed money) but also increases monthly payments.

How Much Home Can You Afford?

Bob and Janet's combined income is $50,000 a year, or $4,166 a month. Their housing expense ratio of 28 percent yields a monthly maximum of $1,166 for mortgage, insurance, and taxes ($4,166 x 0.28 = $1,166).

Their total debt ceiling of 36 percent is $1,583 (4,166 x 0.36 = $1,500). Their monthly debt payments include a $200 car payment, credit card payments of $100, and student loan payments of $200. Subtracting this total of $500 from the $1,500 permitted leaves $1,000 in monthly housing payments.

Costs of Buying a Home

Many home buyers are surprised (shocked might be a better word) to find that a down payment is not the only cash requirement. A home inspection can cost $200 or more. Closing costs may include loan origination fees, up-front "points" (prepaid interest), application fees, appraisal fee, survey, title search and title insurance, first month's homeowners insurance, recording fees and attorney's fees. In many locales, transfer taxes are assessed. Finally, adjustments for heating oil or property taxes already paid by the sellers will be included in your final costs. All this will probably add up to be between 3 percent and 8 percent of your purchase price.

Ongoing Costs

In addition to mortgage payments, there are other costs associated with home ownership. Utilities, heat, property taxes, repairs, insurance, services such as trash or snow removal, landscaping, assessments, and replacement of appliances are the major costs incurred. Make sure you understand how much you are willing and able to spend on such items.

Condominiums may not have the same costs as a house, but they do have association fees. Older homes are often less expensive to buy, but repairs may be greater than those in a newer home. When looking for a home, be sure to check the actual expenses of the previous owners, or expenses for a comparable home in the neighborhood.

Choosing a Neighborhood

Before you start looking at homes, look at neighborhoods. Schools and other services play a large part in making a neighborhood attractive. Even if you don't have children, your future buyer may. Crime rates, taxes, transportation, and town services are other things to look at. Finally, learn the local zoning laws. A new pizza shop next door might alter your property's future value. On the other hand, you may want to run a business out of your home.

Look for a neighborhood where prices are increasing. As the prices of the better homes increase, values of the lesser homes may rise as well. If you find a less expensive home in a good neighborhood, make sure you factor in the cost of repairs or upgrades that such a house may need.

Finding a Broker

If you are a first-time home buyer, you will probably want to work with a broker. Brokers know the market and can be a valuable source of information concerning the home buying process. Ask lots of questions, but remember that most brokers are working for the seller, and in the end, their primary obligation is to the seller and not to you. An alternative is a so-called buyer's broker. This individual does work for you, and therefore is paid by you. Seller's brokers are paid by the seller.

Make sure that the broker has access to the Multiple Listing Service (MLS). This service lists all the properties for sale by most major brokers across the country. Brokerage commissions average 5 percent to 7 percent and are split between the listing broker and the broker that eventually sells the home. Don't be surprised if your broker is eager to sell you their own listing since they would then earn the entire commission.

Home Buying Costs:

Down Payment
0% - 20% of purchase price

Home Inspection
$200 - $500

$1,000 and up for 1% - 3%

3% - 8% of purchase price

Once you've determined a price range and location, you're ready to look at individual homes. Remember that much of a home's value is derived from the values of those surrounding it. Since the average residency in a house is seven years, consider the qualities that will be attractive to future buyers as well as those attractive to you.

Although it can be difficult, try to remember that you will probably want to sell this home someday. The more research you do today, the better your decision will look in the years to come.


•Buying a home can mean building significant value through the years.
•Think carefully about how much you can afford to spend and consider borrowing guidelines like those used by Fannie Mae.
•Pre-qualifying with your lender is a good way to determine how much house you can afford.
•You will need cash for a down payment and closing costs. Generally speaking, the higher the down payment, the lower the interest rate and monthly mortgage payment.
•In addition to your mortgage payments, you will also need to consider the other costs of home ownership.
•Schools, taxes, services, crime rates, transportation, and zoning are important considerations when selecting a neighborhood.
•Brokers usually represent the seller, but they can be valuable sources of information for buyers as well. A broker that belongs to the Multiple Listing Service will be able to offer a wider variety of homes to choose from.
•Remember to consider resale value when buying your home.
12 Great Web Resources for First-Time Home Buyers
There is nothing more exciting than buying your first home. This is a big step in your life, both personally and financially, but once you made the move you will be glad you did.

The process you follow from beginning to end will be similar for most first-time home buyers. While some have a solid idea of what to expect, others are unsure of what they will face as the process unwinds. Fortunately, there is plenty of information available for every phase of the buying process.

In addition to the assistance you can receive from industry professionals, such as a realtor or mortgage broker, you can unearth plenty of information online.

Let’s take a closer look at five of the primary steps of the buying process, with a focus on where to turn when searching the internet for advice.

Obtaining a Mortgage Pre-approval

Before you ever begin your home search, you need to receive a pre-qualification letter from a lender. Not only will this help you better understand how much you can afford to spend, but it will go a long way in making your offer stronger when you finally find the home of your dreams.

You can obtain a mortgage pre-approval by contacting any lender, from local banks to large institutions such as Wells Fargo.

Would you rather work with a mortgage broker? If so, you can use the Association of Mortgage Professionals directory to find a professional in your local area.

For those who worry about choosing the wrong lender, it is best to rely on a website, such as, that can help you compare rates and fees.

Selecting a Real Estate Agent

It is easy to believe all real estate agents are the same, however, this is not true. Agents differ in many ways, including the following:

  • Experience
  • Knowledge of the area
  • Availability

With so many agents scattered across the country, with thousands in bigger cities, making a decision on whom to contact can be a challenge. To make your life easier, search through real estate agent reviews on Zillow. This will give you a clear idea of which professionals have the best reputation in your area.

Choosing a Home and Neighborhood

As a first time homebuyer, you need to know how much you can afford to spend (see above), as well as what you are hoping to get in return for your money.

Although you may have a long wish list, there could come a time when you realize you have to knock some items off the list. Remember, it is hard to get everything you want in your first home. There is nothing wrong with compromising.

Picking a specific neighborhood is another important step in the home buying process.  Neighborhood Scout is a web based application that provides you with information on every neighborhood in the country. You will gain access to powerful data, including but not limited to:

  • Median home value
  • Schools
  • Home appreciation
  • Crime
  • Demographics

The Inspection Process

What you see on the surface of a home does not always paint a clear picture. It takes an experienced home inspector to dig down deep, searching for problems you may not be able to see on your own.

From the condition of the roof and foundation to the age of the plumbing and electrical systems, there is no replacement for a thorough home inspection.

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